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HOT! Update Of Intel Roadmap News!

Intel Roadmap News 10/2000 - Part Two, Intel's Future Mobile and Server/Workstation Products

Intel Roadmap News 10/2000 - Part One, Desktop Processors And Chipsets

AMD vs. Intel: The best CPU for MPEG-4.

DDR-SDRAM Has Finally Arrived

AMD Extends Performance Lead With New Athlon and Duron Processor

Intel i820 Chipset Review

Intel's New Weapon - The Coppermine

Tom's Blurb - All Owners of Systems With Intel's i820 Chipset That Don't Use RDRAM Yet Will Now Get It For Free From Intel!

Tom's Blurb: Why We Don't Trust Rambus - Pointing Out Facts, Turning Rumors Into Reality

Intel Admits Problems With Pentium III 1.13 GHz - Production and Shipments Halted

Important Pentium 4 Evaluation Update

Rambler's Top100 Рейтинг@Mail.ru

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Intel
Краткое содержание статьи: Equipped with an exciting brand new design Intel's new flagship is getting ready to step out into the open. Get ready for the most controversial x86-processor of all times. Find out if you are the working class kind of guy with Athlon-ambitions or rather the stylish Yuppie that needs Pentium 4 even if it's only to be cool. Here it comes, the battle style against power.

Intel's New Pentium 4 Processor


Редакция THG,  20 ноября 2000
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An Overview

I would like to start with the block diagrams of Pentium 4, Pentium III and AMD's latest Athlon processor. I spent considerable time with PowerPoint to create those diagrams, so please don't just disregard them. Even if they might look scary at this stage, I promise to explain them to you in the following text.

Intel Pentium 4 Processor Architectural Block Diagram

This is my personal P4-diagram, which became necessary because Intel wasn't able to supply one that was good enough. It follows the traditional top-to-bottom flowchart idea and should include all the important units that influence Pentium 4's performance. Here's a little glossary:

  • BTB = 'Branch Target Buffer'. In this table you'll find all the addresses to where a branch will or could be made. Athlon is also using a 'BHT' = 'Branch History Table', which stores the addresses where branches were made to. A software program is using branches to make decisions. The program asks a question and according to the answer a branch is made or not.
  • µOP = 'Micro-Operation/Operand'. This is the name that Intel gives instructions, which can be directly understood by the execution units of the microprocessor. AMD calls them 'MacroOPs', because they are a bit advanced and can contain more information than Intel's µOPs. Both 'OPs' have one important thing in common. They represent very simple instructions that can be quickly carried out by the processor. Unlike x86-instructions, those 'OPs' are of a defined size and can thus easily be fed into the execution pipeline. The decoder translates an x86-instruction into one or many more 'OPs', unless the x86-instruction was so complex (and rare) that the 'Micro Instruction Sequencer' has to produce a sometimes rather longish sequence of 'OPs', using the 'Micro Code ROM' found in any modern super scalar microprocessor. In average, most x86-instructions get decoded to about two 'OPs'. Some extremely simple instructions like e.g. an 'AND', 'OR', 'XOR' or 'ADD' are often producing only one 'OP', while a 'DIV' or 'MUL', or an indirect addressed operand will produce more. Complex instructions like e.g. trigonometric commands can easily produce up to hundreds of 'OPs', coming out of the 'Micro Instruction Sequencer'.
  • ALU - Arithmetic Logic Unit. This is the name of what we call the 'Integer'-unit. Arithmetic operations like adding, multiplying and dividing as well as logic operations such as 'OR', 'AND', 'ASL', 'ROL', ... are carried out by the 'ALUs'. Those operations represent the vast majority of program code in most software programs.
  • AGU - Address Generation Unit. This unit is just as important as the 'ALU', because it is responsible for the data from or to the correct address to either be loaded or stored. Absolute addressing in programs is only used in rare exceptions. As soon as you've got arrays of data the program code is using indirect addressing, keeping the 'AGUs' busy.
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Обсуждение в Клубе Экспертов THG Обсуждение в Клубе Экспертов THG


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История мейнфреймов: от Harvard Mark I до System z10 EC
Верите вы или нет, но были времена, когда компьютеры занимали целые комнаты. Сегодня вы работаете за небольшим персональным компьютером, но когда-то о таком можно было только мечтать. Предлагаем окунуться в историю и познакомиться с самыми знаковыми мейнфреймами за последние десятилетия.

Пятнадцать процессоров Intel x86, вошедших в историю
Компания Intel выпустила за годы существования немало процессоров x86, начиная с эпохи расцвета ПК, но не все из них оставили незабываемый след в истории. В нашей первой статье цикла мы рассмотрим пятнадцать наиболее любопытных и памятных процессоров Intel, от 8086 до Core 2 Duo.

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