HOT! Update Of Intel Roadmap News!

Intel Roadmap News 10/2000 - Part Two, Intel's Future Mobile and Server/Workstation Products

Intel Roadmap News 10/2000 - Part One, Desktop Processors And Chipsets

AMD vs. Intel: The best CPU for MPEG-4.

DDR-SDRAM Has Finally Arrived

AMD Extends Performance Lead With New Athlon and Duron Processor

Intel i820 Chipset Review

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Tom's Blurb - All Owners of Systems With Intel's i820 Chipset That Don't Use RDRAM Yet Will Now Get It For Free From Intel!

Tom's Blurb: Why We Don't Trust Rambus - Pointing Out Facts, Turning Rumors Into Reality

Intel Admits Problems With Pentium III 1.13 GHz - Production and Shipments Halted

Important Pentium 4 Evaluation Update

Rambler's Top100 Рейтинг@Mail.ru


Краткое содержание статьи: Equipped with an exciting brand new design Intel's new flagship is getting ready to step out into the open. Get ready for the most controversial x86-processor of all times. Find out if you are the working class kind of guy with Athlon-ambitions or rather the stylish Yuppie that needs Pentium 4 even if it's only to be cool. Here it comes, the battle style against power.

Intel's New Pentium 4 Processor

Редакция THG,  20 ноября 2000
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The Rapid Execution Engine

Intel Pentium 4 Rapid Execution

The above picture is actually showing all execution units of Pentium 4, including the 'Rapid Execution Engine' as well as the 'not-so-rapid' execution units. While Intel is only talking about the four fast execution units, the other four are the actual units that are responsible for Pentium 4's peculiar behavior in the benchmarks.

Basic part of the 'Rapid Execution Engine' are the two 'double-pumped' ALUs and AGUs. Each of the four is said to be clocked with double the processors clock, because they can receive a µOP every half clock. Intel never disclosed if those units are now indeed clocked with twice the processor clock or if each of those units is in reality consisting of two identical sub-units running at normal clock that can merely receive the µOPs alternately every half clock. It doesn't really matter which of the two is actually true, because the result is the same. Simple µOPs that can be processed by the Rapid Execution Engine are executed in half a clock, which is obviously a very good thing.

The story looks a lot different for the instructions that cannot be processed by the rapid execution units. Those instructions or µOPs need to use the one and only 'Slow ALU', which is not 'double pumped'. The majority of instructions needs to use this path, which obviously sounds scary. However, the majority of code is in actual fact consisting of the most simple 'AND', 'OR', 'XOR', 'ADD', .... Instructions, making Intel's 'Rapid Execution Engine'-design sensible though not particularly amazing.

Things look worse if you have a look at the red boxes, which represent the FPU-part of Pentium 4. Please take the time and compare this part to the Pentium III block diagram. You will see that Intel has actually castrated quite a bit of the SSE/MMX part of Pentium 4. Pentium III used to have two MMX and two SSE units, but Pentium 4 has only got one of each. Intel claims that additional units would not have improved the SSE/SSE2, MMX or FPU performance. However, our benchmark results speak a different language.

SSE2 - The New Double Precision Streaming SIMD Extensions

To conclude this epic piece about Pentium 4's internal architecture I need not forget to mention SSE2. 144 new instructions are finally enabling everything that SSE was expected to be in the first place. The 128-bit of packed data, which could only be in form of four single-precision floating-point values under SSE can now be operated in all of the following options:

  • 4 single precision FP values (SSE)
  • 2 double precision FP values (SSE2)
  • 16 byte values (SSE2)
  • 8 word values (SSE2)
  • 4 double word values (SSE2)
  • 2 quad word values (SSE2)
  • 1 128-bit integer value (SSE2)

The options are vast and the usefulness undoubted. Intel hopes that software developers will soon replace the old x87-FPU-instructions with the double-precision FP instructions of SSE2, so that Intel's currently false claim that Pentium 4 has the most powerful FPU finally becomes reality. AMD is very impressed with SSE2 as well, which is why it announced to us only a few days ago that the upcoming Hammer-line of x86-64 processors will include SSE2 as well.

I personally have my doubts if SSE2 will be able to replace x87-instructions in scientific software. We should not forget that the original FPU is using 80-bit FP-values, not the less exact 64-bit FP-values offered by SSE2.
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Обсуждение в Клубе Экспертов THG Обсуждение в Клубе Экспертов THG


История мейнфреймов: от Harvard Mark I до System z10 EC
Верите вы или нет, но были времена, когда компьютеры занимали целые комнаты. Сегодня вы работаете за небольшим персональным компьютером, но когда-то о таком можно было только мечтать. Предлагаем окунуться в историю и познакомиться с самыми знаковыми мейнфреймами за последние десятилетия.

Пятнадцать процессоров Intel x86, вошедших в историю
Компания Intel выпустила за годы существования немало процессоров x86, начиная с эпохи расцвета ПК, но не все из них оставили незабываемый след в истории. В нашей первой статье цикла мы рассмотрим пятнадцать наиболее любопытных и памятных процессоров Intel, от 8086 до Core 2 Duo.

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